Tuberculosis TB Disease

Tuberculosis TB Disease


This is the dangerous disease caused by the bacterial named Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is the communicable disease spread from the sputum of the infected person. Usually, disease is spread by the Sneezing, cough, spit and during speaking. This was the most potent disease in the past and the present causing the major casualty globally. Due to the rapid resistance to the drugs by the bacteria the treatment is getting difficult day by day. It is estimated that one-third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis (1).

The majority of the tuberculosis infection takes place in the lungs and in some case the infection occurs outside the lungs. Around 20% of the infection takes place outside the lungs (2). This is the second cause of mortality due to highly contagious nature. The mortality is intensive in the developing country than that of developed country.


Symptoms and Sign


Symptoms of tuberculosis include the prolong a cough, cough become intense at night and blood is seen in a cough, chronic chest pain, and many others. The sign include rapid weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, tiredness, night sweats and chills (3)

Diagnosis


The diagnosis of the disease is done by examining the culture of the body fluid and by Chest X-rays (4). Those which the risk of Tuberculosis is screened with Mantoux tuberculin Skin test.


DOTS


This is the commonly used treatment for tuberculosis infection. Usually, the DOTS are the abbreviation of Directly Observed Treatment, short-course. The standardized treatment takes six to nine year to complete.

Drug Resistance Tuberculosis


If tuberculosis appears after completing the treatment. This often refers to as the multiple drug resistance tuberculosis. The treatment process for this tuberculosis is 18 to 24 months by using multiple antibiotics.

Vaccines


The Bacillus Chalmette Guerin (BCG) is the vaccine available for the children. Due to the limitation of this vaccine there is the need for the alternative vaccine.

Word Tuberculosis Bay


March 24 is the world tuberculosis day. In the year 1882 March 24 Dr. Robert Koch identified and describe the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


References

1.  "Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104"World Health Organization. November 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2016.


2. Golden MP, Vikram HR (2005). "Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: an overview". American Family Physician72 (9): 1761–8.


3. Gibson, et al. (2005). Evidence-Based Respiratory Medicine (1st ed.). BMJ Books. p. 321. 


4. Konstantinos A (2010). "Testing for tuberculosis"Australian Prescriber33 (1): 12–18.


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