Bengal tigers or the royal Bengal tiger is the carnivorous mammals found in South East Asia. It is the national animal of India and Bangladesh and with the estimated population of less than twenty-five hundred in the world. The habitat of Bengal tiger lies in Nepal, Bhutan, India, and Bangladesh
Large-scale hunting by the rulers in the past caused this species to nearly disappearing from the earth. Hunting this animal was considered as the most enjoyable leisure activities by higher dignitaries in past. Due to this nature, their population has shrinkage.
The weight of male and female tiger can reach up to 258 kg and 160kg respectively. The length of male and female can go up to 310 centimeters and 265 centimeters respectively. They are noted for the longest canine teeth that are 7.5 to 10 centimeter in length.
Bengal tiger is endangered due to following reasons:
1. Habitat destruction
Habitat destruction by various anthropogenic activates like the clearing of the forest has adversely affected the population of the Royal Bengal tiger. Habitat destruction has produced a lot of hindrance in the performance of normal behavior of tiger.
This is the prime cause of the decline of royal Bengal tiger. Due to the illegal trade of skin and body parts of the tiger conserving tiger has become difficult. Due to the huge demand for tiger body parts and skin in various Chinese traditional medicines, the illegal demand for body parts is always on the rise.
Lack of adequate rainfall can be devastating effect in tiger population. Tiger being the umbrella species survives in herbivorous that feeds in the grass. Due to the hindrance in food supply due to the drought, the population can decline drastically.
4. Lacking home range
A male tiger requires a territory of greater than 10 square kilometers. Further, the requirement of home range differs greatly. The limited area assigned as the protection area is not suitable for the excessive number of tiger conservation.
5. Lack of corridor
The protected area needs to link by the corridor to facilitate the movement of the animal. This can have the beneficial effect on the tiger population. Using series of afforestation practices between the protected areas can make artificial corridor. This is vital, as it will increase the genetic diversity.
6. Retaliation killing
Farmers living in the buffer zone are eager for retaliation killing. The killing of the domestic animals by tiger rises in the anger towards the tiger.
7. Tourist traffic
Unwanted disturbance of the tiger during the day can adversely affect the Tiger. Tiger being nocturnal does not like disturbance during the daytime. Further, solid wastes generated by the tourist inside the protected areas adversely affect the tiger population.