Cholera is the infectious disease spread by strains of bacteria often refers to as vibrio cholera. The outbreak of this occurs mostly in the rural part of world and children are mostly affected. Cholera is account for thousands of death per year in the rural part of the world.
Mode of Infection
This is mainly caused due to consumption of the food and drinks contaminated with the Bacterium. Food contaminants in human feces, any uncooked seafood as cholera are found in planktons and shellfish. As plankton which is on the top of the marine food chain. This drastically increases the chance of infection by consuming marine creature.
Defecating in open place especially in the rural part of the world accelerate the process of contamination and the spread of cholera.
Cause of Death
The massive loss of body fluid in short period of time causes the misbalance in ion exchange in the body leading to dehydration. The loss of fluid and ions if not compensate ahead of time can lead to the death.
It is marked by distress in bowel movement leading to watery diarrhea that can last for more than one day. leg cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea occurs simultaneously. The bacteria Vibrio cholera infect the intestine due to this several noisome effects are felt in the intestine.
The loss of the bodily fluid during cholera is massive which account for 10 to 20 liters. The prime cause of death is due to massive loss of bodily fluid in short period of time.
It is diagnosis by the test of the stool sample. There are other diagnosis methods available but stool test is widely used.
There are oral vaccines available for cholera of which three vaccines are WHO approved.
The treatment process focuses on rehydration of salts in the body. This can be achieved by the oral intake of the salts. In the severe cases where the oral intake of ions seems impossible intravenous treatment is often done.
Normally antibiotics are not essential for the treatment. The best treatment is compensation of ion by intake of salt solution. There is some cause that requires antibiotics. Antibiotics are often administrating to kill the bacterium by the health practitioner.
There is the need of treatment as soon as possible in cholera occurrence as there is always the chance of mortality within hours.
Infected children should be breastfed at regular interval to compensate the fluid loss in the body.