Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus is the leading cause of death in the present world. There are no medications available for the treatment of the virus. Due to the highly contagious nature, it is the prime cause of the mortality around the globe. Based on the spread capacity there are two types of virus HIV1 and HIV 2. HIV 1 is the virus found in almost all parts of the world whereas HIV 2 is confined mainly to Africa and is less contagious. Without treatment, the victims die in 9 to 11 years (1). There are expensive drugs available to strengthen the immune system to prolong the life of the one who is infected.
Viruses are the obligatory parasite that remains inactive for many years. A virus becomes active only after they got the living host to multiply. HIV viruses attack the immune system by destroying the helper T cell. Over the time this virus makes the immune system highly fragile.
It is almost impossible to detect the HIV virus infestation relaying in the symptoms. Analyzing the HIV antibody mostly done for the detection. The visibility of the antibody is possible after three months of infection.
Mode of Infection
Contact with the infected serum causes the spread of the disease. The majority of the infection is sexually transmitted. The common mode of infection is the blood transfusion, sharing the needle especially while taking illegal drugs, breastfeeding, etc. It does not transmit through the handshake, hugging, using the toilet. The virus becomes inherit after exposure to the air around 30 seconds. One-fourth of the babies born from the infected mother gets the infection. There has been the development of technologies to minimize the risk the transmission of the baby.
The origin of the virus was believed to be from Africa. Both the HIV – 1 and HIV – 2 are transmitted from the primate preferably by consuming the bushmeat.
The virus was discovered in united state laboratory in 1981. Although the case of the AIDS has described in Norway in 1966 (2).
Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome is shortly known as AIDS. Depending upon the genetic makeup it requires up to 15 years to reach this stage. AIDS is the last stage marked by the collapse of the immune system. Due to the inability of the body to cope with the antigen death becomes inevitable.
1. UNAIDS, WHO (December 2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). p. 10. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
2. Lederberg, editor-in-chief Joshua (2000). Encyclopedia of Microbiology, (4 Volume Set). (2nd ed.). Burlington: Elsevier. p. 106.